2017年夏季

金融的称霸资本主权及政治

如果金融市场的特点就是那些感觉受到其风险影响的人在其决策过程中没有任何决定权如果风险与危险的不同只是在于前者可以被归因为受害者自己的行为或缺乏行为所致那么对于多数人来说他们完全依赖市场决定不了任何事金融系统已经将风险转化为清晰在场的危险如果在金融资本中资本的特点变得更加普世变成了一股统一的决定社会重大进程的力量那么在大部分现代情况下随之而复原的就是那些古老的君主人物所带来的例外性和危险这就是金融王国的主权效应它将自己定位为一种半民主的(parademocratic)、例外的力量它通过债务和亏欠来将人们连接在一起它使社会和政治结构适应金融经济风险最后它将一种背信弃义的未来”(Keynes的诸种势力和不确定性作为回报还给我们的社会

主权者就是那个可以将其自身之风险化为他人之危险的人他将自己定位为最后债权人

约瑟夫·沃格是柏林洪堡大学现代德国文学媒体和文化研究系的教授也是普林斯顿大学的终身客座教授

约瑟夫·沃格的金融的称霸已由Simon Garnett翻译成英语Polity(politybooks.com)上有售

注释
1. Alexander Rüstow, “Compte-rendu des séances du colloque Walter Lippmann” (August 26–30, 1938), in Travaux du Centre International d’études pour la rénovation du libéralisme, vol. 1 (Paris: Librarie de Médicis, 1939), 83, cited in Michel Foucault, The Birth of Biopolitics (Basingstoke, UK: Picador, 2010), 242n5; Ludwig von Mises, Human Action (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1949), 2; see also Joseph Vogl, Das Gespenst des Kapitals (Zurich: Diaphanes, 2010), 133–40.

2. Foucault, The Birth of Biopolitics, 333; cf. 208, 210–11, 246, 312. See also Joshua Barkan, Corporate Sovereignty: Law and Government Under Capitalism (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2013), 12.

3. Robert J. Shiller, The New Financial Order: Risk in the 21st Century (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003), 1–2.

4. David Harvey, The Enigma of Capital and the Crises of Capitalism (London: Profile Books, 2010), 18; Christian Marazzi, Verbranntes Geld (Zurich: Diaphanes, 2011), 34–43.

5. According to Mario Monti before his appointment as prime minister in 2011; cited in Jean-Pierre Dupuy, L’avenir de l’économie: Sortir de l’économystification (Paris: Flammarion, 2012), 11.

6. Max Haiven, “Financial Totalitarianism: The Economic, Political, Social and Cultural Rule of Speculative Capital,” Truthout, June 12, 2013, truth-out.org/news/item/16911-financialtotalitarianism-the-economic-political-social-and-cultural-rule-of-speculative-capital; Stefano Lucarelli, “Financialization as Biopower,” in Crisis in the Global Economy: Financial Markets, Social Struggles, and New Political Scenarios, ed. Andrea Fumagalli and Sandro Mezzadra (Los Angeles: Semiotext[e], 2007), 119–38. On “indebted persons” in the financial regime, see Maurizio Lazzarato, Die Fabrik des verschuldeten Menschen: Ein Essay über das neoliberale Leben (Berlin: b-books, 2012); Walter Benjamin, “Capitalism as Religion,” in Selected Writings, vol. 1, ed. Marcus Paul Bullock et al. (London: Belknap, 1996–2003), 288–91; also the articles of Marcel Hénaff, Elena Esposito, Birger P. Priddat, Christina von Braun, Jochen Hörisch, Roberto Esposito, and Martin Treml in Bonds: Schuld, Schulden und andere Verbindlichkeiten, ed. Thomas Macho (Munich: Wilhelm Fink, 2014).

7. Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987), 424–75.

8. Émile Benveniste, Le vocabulaire des institutions indo-européennes (Paris: Éditions de Minuit, 1993), 135–41; Bruno Théret, L’état, la finance et le social (Paris: Éditions Le Découverte, 1995), 571–75.

9. Jean Bodin, Les six livres de la république, vol. 6, ed. M. J. Tooley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1955), 44, 88–92.

10. Carl Schmitt, Der Begriff des Politischen (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1991), 80–96; Schmitt, Political Theology, trans. George Schwab (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005), 5.

11. Jessica Matthews, “Power Shift,” Foreign Affairs, January–February 1997, 50–66; Anne-Marie Slaughter, A New World Order: Government Networks and the Disaggregated State (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004), 266–71; Saskia Sassen, Losing Control? Sovereignty in an Age of Globalization (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996), 31; Ernst Forsthoff, Der Staat der Industriegesellschaft (Munich: Beck, 1971), 14; Barkan, Corporate Sovereignty; Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Empire (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000), 195–216; Abram Chayes and Antonia Handler Chayes, The New Sovereignty: Compliance with International Regulatory Agreements (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995).

— 文/ 约瑟夫·沃格 | Joseph Vogl, 译/ 张涵露


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